This post updates the situation regarding publications by Hans J Eysenck that are deemed ‘unsafe’. The 148 publications include 87 publications identified by David F Marks and Roderick D Buchanan and 61 papers in two journals flagged by SAGE Publications on 10 February 2020 (details below).
To date, only fourteen of HJ Eysenck’s 148 suspect papers have been retracted. A list containing details of 61 of the suspect papers was published more than a year ago.
Why are journals so slow to retract such obviously dubious papers?
Complacent, Complicit Institutions
A large part of the blame lies with King’s College London, where Hans J Eysenck’s Institute is affiliated. The institution has been slow and reluctant to act. KCL conducted a review of Eysenck’s publications but failed to complete the job. A recent editorial with Eysenck’s biographer, Rod D Buchanan, called on KCL to properly complete their review. To date, KCL has given no response.
Equally culpable is the British Psychological Society. The British Psychological Society is the representative body for Psychology and Psychologists in the UK. The Society is responsible for the promotion of excellence and ethical practice in the science, education, and practical applications of Psychology. As the only professional association of psychologists in Britain, the BPS has refused to do anything at all to censor H J Eysenck’s fraudulent research. How can the British public feel protected from ‘fake news’ and fraud if the Society responsible for policing psychological practice in the UK sticks its head in the sand? An utter disgrace!
Remember that according to HJE, the connection between smoking and cancer was unproven. Moreover cancer and heart disease can be caused by one’s own personality!
Yet the BPS has done nothing to correct these blatant falsehoods.
To this day, the Society continues to bolster up HJE’s flagging reputation.
The Society’s magazine published a letter claiming that this author’s request for an inquiry into H J Eysenck: “…is representative of the very type of smear campaign and witch-hunting which Eysenck was subjected to previously.”
The British Psychological Society’s complicity in Eysenck’s discredited publication record and its refusal to take any action whatsoever is shameful. It is evident that the BPS is more interested in protecting its own than the British public.
The responsibility for H J E’s many suspect publications cannot be laid only at Eysenck’s door. The many co-authors of the long list of suspect publication were required to vouch for the authenticity of the data, analyses and conclusions when the papers were accepted for publication.
Many of the suspect papers were co-authored with well-known figures in the Psychology discipline including HJE’s second wife, Sybil B.G Eysenck. Other co-authors include professors holding chairs in the University of London, Professors Adrian Furnham, and Chris Frith at University College London. Paul Barrett, was co-director with Hans Eysenck of the Biosignal Lab at the University of London’s Institute of Psychiatry for 14 years, and currently is Chief Research Scientist at Cognadev (UK and SA), and Professor of Psychology at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Another of HJE’s co-authors is Richard Lynn, a former professor of psychology at Ulster University, having had the title withdrawn by the university in 2018, and Editor-in-Chief of the journal Mankind Quarterly, which has been described as a “white supremacist journal”. Hans Eysenck’s eugenicist convictions will be the subject of a later post.
No publications in the two journals founded by HJE have yet been retracted. However, three have been listed in an Expression of Concern: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.109855
In spite of the obvious fraud, the journal Personality and Individual Differences, one of the journals founded by HJE, retracts nothing. PAID cannot bring itself to publicly acknowledge that HJE was a charlatan. Many who signed an expression of concern are Eysenck’s co-authors, including Barrett, referred to above. No conflict of interest there then.
Full bibliographic details can be found at the Retraction Watch database: 14 retractions and 64 expressions of concern.
Journals Slow to Act
73 items are pending any response by the relevant publishers. The publishers are listed in the KCL enquiry report as follows:
Professor Roger Pearson (Editor) Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies Council for Social and Economic Studies PO Box 34143 Washing DC 20043, USA (1 paper).
Michelle G. Craske (Editor) Behaviour Research and Therapy Department of Psychology University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563 California, USA (4 papers).
Dr Donald Saklofske Personality and Individual Differences Department of Psychology University of Western Ontario Canada (4 papers).
Jaan Valsiner (Editor-in-Chief) Intergrative Psychological and Behavioral Science Department of Psychology Clark University Worcester, MA 01610-1477, USA (1 paper).
Professor Oi Ling Siu (Editor) International Journal of Stress Management WYL201/1 Dorothy Y L Wong Building Department of Applied Psychology Lingnan University Tuen Mun Hong Kong (1 paper).
Werner Strik (Editor) Neuropsychobiology University Hospital of Psychiatry Waldau Page 8 of 9 CH-3000 Bern 60 Switzerland (1 paper).
Adam S. Radomsky (Editor) Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry L-PY 101-4 Psychology Building 7141 Sherbrooke W. Concordia University in Montreal Canada (1 paper).
Timothy R Elliott (Editor) Journal of Clinical Psychology Education & Human Development Texas A&M University 713A Harrington Office Building (2 papers).
How much longer do these journals need to wait?
Two journals published by SAGE have already listed 13 retractions and expressions of concern on 61 papers. Other journals need to follow suit.
Psychological Reports Expression of Concern
The Journal Editor and SAGE Publishing hereby issue an expression of concern for the following articles:
- Eysenck, H. J. (1955). Psychiatric Diagnosis as a Psychological and Statistical Problem. Psychological Reports, 1(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1955.1.g.3
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1964). “Acquiescence” Response Set in Personality Inventory Items. Psychological Reports, 14(2), 513–514. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.113
- Eysenck, H. J. (1956). Diagnosis and Measurement: A Reply to Loevinger. Psychological Reports, 2(3), 117–118. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1967). Physiological Reactivity to Sensory Stimulation as a Measure of Personality. Psychological Reports, 20(1), 45–46. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.124
- Sartory, G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Strain Differences in Acquisition and Extinction of Fear Responses in Rats. Psychological Reports, 38(1), 163–187. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.199
- Bruni, P., & Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Structure of Attitudes—An Italian Sample. Psychological Reports, 38(3), 956–958. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.526
- Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Structure of Social Attitudes. Psychological Reports, 39(2), 463–466. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.2063
- Eysenck, S. B. G., White, O., & Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Personality and Mental Illness. Psychological Reports, 39(3), 1011–1022. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.111
- Eysenck, H. J. (1958). The Nature of Anxiety and the Factorial Method. Psychological Reports, 4(2), 453–454. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1958.4.h.453
- Hewitt, J. K., Eysenck, H. J., & Eaves, L. J. (1977). Structure of Social Attitudes after Twenty-Five Years: A Replication. Psychological Reports, 40(1), 183–188. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1977). Personality Differences between Prisoners and Controls. Psychological Reports, 40(3_suppl), 1023–1028. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1977.40.3c.1023
- Eysenck, H. J. (1977). National Differences in Personality as Related to ABO Blood Group Polymorphism. Psychological Reports, 41(3_suppl), 1257–1258. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1977.41.3f.1257
- Hewitt, J. K., Fulker, D. W., & Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Effect of Strain and Level of Shock on the Behaviour of Rats in PSI Experiments. Psychological Reports, 42(3_suppl), 1103–1108. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1978.42.3c.1103
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness: Their Position in a Dimensional System of Personality Description. Psychological Reports, 43(3_suppl), 1247–1255. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1978.43.3f.1247
- Eysenck, H. J. (1979). Personality Factors in a Random Sample of the Population. Psychological Reports, 44(3_suppl), 1023–1027. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1979.44.3c.1023
- Eysenck, H. J. (1980). Psychology of the Scientist: XLIV. Sir Cyril Burt: Prominence versus Personality. Psychological Reports, 46(3), 893–894. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1243
- Eysenck, H. J. (1980). Personality, Marital Satisfaction, and Divorce. Psychological Reports, 47(3_suppl), 1235–1238. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1980.47.3f.1235
- Eysenck, H. J. (1959). Comments on a Test of the Personality-Satiation-Inhibition Theory. Psychological Reports, 5(2), 395–396. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1959.5.h.395
- Eysenck, H. J. (1959). Personality and Verbal Conditioning. Psychological Reports, 5(2), 570–570. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1959.5.h.570
- Eysenck, H. J. (1959). Personality and Problem Solving. Psychological Reports, 5(3), 592–592. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1992
- Eysenck, H. J. (1982). The Biological Basis of Cross-Cultural Differences in Personality: Blood Group Antigens. Psychological Reports, 51(2), 531–540. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.521
- Eysenck, H. J. (1987). Comments on “the Orthogonality of Extraversion and Neuroticism Scales.” Psychological Reports, 61(1), 50–50. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.206
- Eysenck, H. J., & Barrett, P. (1993). The Nature of Schizotypy. Psychological Reports, 73(1), 59–63. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.11
- Eysenck, H. J. (1995). Some Comments on the Gough Socialization Scale. Psychological Reports, 76(1), 298–298. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1688
- Eysenck, H. J., Eysenck, S. B. G., & Barrett, P. (1995). Personality Differences According to Gender. Psychological Reports, 76(3), 711–716. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1241
Perceptual and Motor Skills Expression of Concern
- Frith, C. D., & Eysenck, H. J. (1982). Reminiscence and Learning: One or Many? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54(2), 494–494. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.1994
- Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1960). Reminiscence on the Spiral After-Efect as a Function of Length of Rest and Number of Pre-Rest Trials. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 10(2), 93–94. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52
- Eysenck, H. J. (1960). Reminiscence, Extraversion and Neuroticism. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(1), 21–22. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.206
- Eysenck, H. J. (1960). Reminiscence as a Function of Rest, Practice, and Personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(1), 91-94E. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.11
- Eysenck, H. J., & Holland, H. (1960). Length of Spiral After-Effect as a Function of Drive. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(2), 129–130. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.168
- Eysenck, H. J. (1960). Reminiscence and Post-Rest Increment after Massed Practice. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(2), 221–222. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.124
- Holland, H., & Eysenck, H. J. (1960). Spiral After-Effect as a Function of Length of Stimulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(2), 228–228. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.199
- Lynn, R., & Eysenck, H. J. (1961). Tolerance for Pain, Extraversion and Neuroticism. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 12(2), 161–162. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52
- Costello, C. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1961). Persistence, Personality, and Motivation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 12(2), 169–170. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.206
- Eysenck, H. J., & Willett, R. A. (1962). Cue Utilization as a Function of Drive: An Experimental Study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 15(1), 229–230. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.11
- Eysenck, H. J., & Willett, R. A. (1962). Performance and Reminiscence on a Symbol Substitution Task as a Function of Drive. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 15(2), 389–390. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.1689
- Eysenck, H. J. (1962). Figural After-Effects, Personality, and Inter-Sensory Comparisons. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 15(2), 405–406. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1245
- Eysenck, H. J. (1964). Involuntary Rest Pauses in Tapping as a Function of Drive and Personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 18(1), 173–174. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.199
- Eysenck, H. J. (1966). On the Dual Function of Consolidation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 22(1), 273–274. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.523
- Eysenck, H. J. (1967). Factor-Analytic Study of the Maitland Graves Design Judgment Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24(1), 73–74. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.206
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1967). Salivary Response to Lemon Juice as a Measure of Introversion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24(3_suppl), 1047–1053. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1967.24.3c.1047
- Eysenck, H. J. (1969). A New Theory of Post-Rest Upswing or “Warm-up” in Motor Learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28(3), 992–994. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.112
- Eysenck, H. J. (1970). An Application of the Maitland Graves Design Judgment Test to Professional Artists. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 30(2), 589–590. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.1689
- Eysenck, S. B. G., Russell, T., & Eysenck, H. J. (1970). Extraversion, Intelligence, and Ability to Draw a Person. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 30(3), 925–926. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1245
- Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Relation between Intelligence and Personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32(2), 637–638. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.1997
- Eysenck, H. J., & Iwawaki, S. (1971). Cultural Relativity in Aesthetic Judgments: An Empirical Study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32(3), 817–818. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.527
- Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Attitudes to Sex, Personality and LIE Scale Scores. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33(1), 216–218. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.206
- Wilson, G. D., Tunstall, O. A., & Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Individual Differences in Tapping Performance as a Function of Time on the Task. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33(2), 375–378. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.115
- Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1971). The Orthogonality of Psychoticism and Neuroticism: A Factorial Study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33(2), 461–462. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.1681
- Eysenck, H. J. (1972). Preference Judgments for Polygons, Designs, and Drawings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34(2), 396–398. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1246
- Bone, R. N., & Eysenck, H. J. (1972). Extraversion, Field-Dependence, and the Stroop Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34(3), 873–874. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.1993
- Eysenck, H. J., & Soueif, M. (1972). An Empirical Test of the Theory of Sexual Symbolism. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35(3), 945–946. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.525
- Allsopp, J. F., & Eysenck, H. J. (1974). Personality as a Determinant of Paired-Associates Learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39(1), 315–324. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.2065
- Götz, K. O., Lynn, R., Borisy, A. R., & Eysenck, H. J. (1979). A New Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test: I. Construction and Psychometric Properties. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49(3), 795–802. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.115
- Iwawaki, S., Eysenck, H. J., & Götz, K. O. (1979). A New Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test (VAST): II. Cross-Cultural Comparison between England and Japan. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49(3), 859–862. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.1689
- Chan, J., Eysenck, H. J., & Götz, K. O. (1980). A New Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test: III. Cross-Cultural Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Adults, and English and Japanese Samples. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 50(3_suppl), 1325–1326. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1980.50.3c.1325
- Frith, C. D., & Eysenck, H. J. (1981). Reminiscence—Psychomotor Learning: A Reply to Coppage and Payne. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53(3), 842–842. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1242
- Chan, J. W. C., Eysenck, H. J., & Lynn, R. (1991). Reaction Times and Intelligence among Hong Kong Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72(2), 427–433. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.1997
- Lynn, R., Chan, J. W. C., & Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Reaction Times and Intelligence in Chinese and British Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72(2), 443–452. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.523
- Eysenck, H. J., & Furnham, A. (1993). Personality and the Barron-Welsh Art Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(3), 837–838. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.2067
- Eysenck, H. J. (1959). Personality and the Estimation of Time. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 9(3), 405–406. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.115
The list of unsafe publications grows and grows. How many more can there be? And when will the scientific record finally be corrected?