Role of Exosomes in the Regulation of T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses and in Autoimmune Disease

Anel, A., Gallego-Lleyda, A., de Miguel, D., Naval, J., & Martínez-Lostao, L. (2019). Role of exosomes in the regulation of T-cell mediated immune responses and in autoimmune disease. Cells8(2), 154.


T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammatory diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention or development of autoimmune disease. The expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes is a molecular mechanism that will be analyzed.

Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation; autoimmunity.


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Homeostasis and Self-Tolerance in the Immune System: Turning Lymphocytes off

Van Parijs, L., & Abbas, A. K. (1998). Homeostasis and self-tolerance in the immune system: turning lymphocytes off. Science280(5361), 243-248.


The immune system responds in a regulated fashion to microbes and eliminates them, but it does not respond to self-antigens. Several regulatory mechanisms function to terminate responses to foreign antigens, returning the immune system to a basal state after the antigen has been cleared, and to maintain unresponsiveness, or tolerance, to self-antigens. Here, recent advances in understanding of the molecular bases and physiologic roles of the mechanisms of immune homeostasis are examined.

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